Battles That Changed History

Download or search for the Battles That Changed History ebook pdf, pdf ebook for read or download subscribe or signup to support authors. Notes some of books may not available for your country and only available for those who subscribe and depend to the source of the book library websites.

The Battles that Changed History

The Battles that Changed History Pdf/ePub eBook Author: N.a
Editor: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 048631894X
FileSize: 1909kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1909

eBook Download

The Battles that Changed History by N.a Summary

DIVHistorian profiles 16 crucial conflicts, ancient to modern, that changed the course of Western civilization. Gripping accounts of battles led by Alexander the Great, Joan of Arc, Ulysses S. Grant, other commanders. 27 maps. /div

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy
Editor: Good Press
FileSize: 1647kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1647

eBook Download

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy Summary

"The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo" by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

Battles That Changed American History: 100 of the Greatest Victories and Defeats

Battles That Changed American History: 100 of the Greatest Victories and Defeats Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Spencer C. Tucker
Editor: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440828628
FileSize: 1309kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1309

eBook Download

Battles That Changed American History: 100 of the Greatest Victories and Defeats by Spencer C. Tucker Summary

A fascinating and informative analysis by a distinguished military historian of the 100 most influential battles in American history, presented in an accessible, ready-reference format. • Introductory overview essay helps create a conceptual framework for readers • A list of "further reading" selections with each entry and a full bibliography identify avenues to further study • Fact boxes throughout the text provide quick, essential information for each battle

Moment of Battle

Moment of Battle Pdf/ePub eBook Author: James Lacey,Williamson Murray
Editor: Bantam
ISBN: 0345526996
FileSize: 1397kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1397

eBook Download

Moment of Battle by James Lacey,Williamson Murray Summary

Two modern masters of military history make their case for the twenty most pivotal battles of all time, in a riveting trip through the ages to those moments when the fate of the world hung in the balance. In the grand tradition of Edward Creasy’s classic Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, James Lacey and Williamson Murray spotlight only those engagements that changed the course of civilization. In gripping narrative accounts they bring these conflicts and eras to vivid life, detailing the cultural imperatives that led inexorably to the battlefield, the experiences of the common soldiers who fought and died, and the legendary commanders and statesmen who matched wits, will, and nerve for the highest possible stakes. From the great clashes of antiquity to the high-tech wars of the twenty-first century, here are the stories of the twenty most consequential battles ever fought, including • Marathon, where Greece’s “greatest generation” repelled Persian forces three times their numbers—and saved Western civilization in its infancy • Adrianople, the death blow to a disintegrating Roman Empire • Trafalgar, the epic naval victory that cemented a century of British supremacy over the globe • Saratoga, the first truly American victory, won by united colonial militias, which ensured the ultimate triumph of the Revolution • Midway, the ferocious World War II sea battle that broke the back of the Japanese navy • Dien Bien Phu, the climactic confrontation between French imperial troops and Viet Minh rebels that led to American intervention in Vietnam and marked the rise of a new era of insurgent warfare • Operation Peach, the perilous 2003 mission to secure a vital bridge over the Euphrates River that would open the way to Baghdad Historians and armchair generals will argue forever about which battles have had the most direct impact on history. But there can be no doubt that these twenty are among those that set mankind on new trajectories. Each of these epochal campaigns is examined in its full historical, strategic, and tactical context—complete with edge-of-your-seat you-are-there battle re-creations. With an eye for the small detail as well as the bigger picture, Lacey and Murray identify the elements that bind these battles together: the key decisions, critical mistakes, and moments of crisis on which the fates of entire civilizations depended. Some battles merely leave a field littered with the bodies of the fallen. Others transform the map of the entire world. Moment of Battle is history written with the immediacy of today’s news, a magisterial tour d’horizon that refreshes our understanding of those essential turning points where the future was decided. A MAIN SELECTION OF THE HISTORY BOOK CLUB AND THE MILITARY BOOK CLUB “Two world-class historians present, eloquently and persuasively, twenty battles that fundamentally changed the course of history. Moment of Battle is a must acquisition for anyone seeking to understand the nature of human development—and its turning points.”—Dennis E. Showalter, professor of history, Colorado College, author of Armor and Blood “In a single volume, James Lacey and Williamson Murray have distilled a lifetime of learning and insight into the most influential battles in world history. This is a readable and compelling primer and a feast for the student of military history.”—James D. Hornfischer, author of Neptune’s Inferno: The U.S. Navy at Guadalcanal

World War II Map by Map

World War II Map by Map Pdf/ePub eBook Author: DK
Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 0744021006
FileSize: 1846kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1846

eBook Download

World War II Map by Map by DK Summary

Trace the epic history of World War 2 across the globe with more than 100 detailed maps. In this stunning visual history book, custom maps tell the story of the Second World War from the rise of the Axis powers to the dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Each map is rich with detail and graphics, helping you to chart the progress of key events of World War II on land, sea, and air, such as the Dunkirk evacuation, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the D-Day landings, and the siege of Stalingrad. Historical maps from both Allied and Axis countries also offer unique insights into the events. There are timelines to help you follow the story as it unfolds, while narrative overviews explain the social, economic, political, and technical developments at the time. Fascinating, large-scale pictures introduce topics such as the Holocaust, blitzkrieg, kamikaze warfare, and code-breaking. Written by a team of historians in consultation with Richard Overy, World War II Map by Map examines how the deadliest conflict in history changed the face of our world. It is perfect for students, general readers, and military history enthusiasts.

The Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain Pdf/ePub eBook Author: James Holland
Editor: Random House
ISBN: 1407066528
FileSize: 1809kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1809

eBook Download

The Battle of Britain by James Holland Summary

______________ ‘A notable account of an epic human experience' Max Hastings, Sunday Times ______________ ‘Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war’ Sir Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons, 18 June 1940 The Nazi Blitzkrieg was unlike any invasion the world had ever seen. It hit Europe with a force and aggression that no-one could counter. Within weeks the German armies were at the French coast and looking across at Britain. It seemed impossible that she would be able to resist invasion. Between the Nazis and glory stood an apparently fragile defence, but the men and women of Fighter, Bomber and Coastal Commands and the Royal Navy would not be cowed. Their heroics that summer would go down in history. In The Battle of Britain for the first time, James Holland tells this most epic of stories from a 360° perspective – when the fate of the world truly hung by a thread.

Battles That Changed History

Battles That Changed History Pdf/ePub eBook Author: DK
Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 1465494944
FileSize: 302kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 302

eBook Download

Battles That Changed History by DK Summary

Discover the stories behind more than 90 of the world's most significant battles in this lavishly illustrated history book. The most important battles ever to take place are brought to life in the most spectacular way. From the brutal battle of Gettysburg to the epic air-sea battle of Midway, find out how fateful decisions led to glorious victories and crushing defeats. Journey through the battlefields of history and follow the key developments of World War I, World War II, the Cold War and more in unprecedented visual detail. Using maps, paintings, artifacts and photographs, Battles That Changed History is a guided tour of every major conflict in history. Explore the stories behind more than 90 important battles and discover how pivotal moments and tactical decisions have altered the course of history. From medieval clashes and great naval conflicts to the era of high-tech air battles, key campaigns are illustrated and analyzed in detail. Learn incredible facts about the weapons, armor, soldiers and military strategies behind some of the greatest battles ever. This reference book includes profiles of famous military leaders like Alexander the Great, Napoleon and Rommel. See how kingdoms and empires have been won and lost on the battlefield. Go into the thick of combat at the Great Siege of Malta, the Battle of Stalingrad and the icy waters of Dunkirk. It is the ultimate guide to the history of military conflict. Relive 3,000 Years of World-Changing Combat This stunning coffee table book from DK Books is a visual treat for history buffs, old and young. It includes a foreword from award-winning writer, TV presenter and historian Sir Tony Robinson whose TV credits include Time Team, Blackadder and The Worst Jobs in History. From the ancient world to the nuclear war, each chapter of this military history book brings the key battles of the era to life: Before 1000CE: Includes Thermopylae and the Battle of Red Cliffs. 1000 - 1500: Includes the Battle of Agincourt and Fall of Constantinople. 1500 - 1700: Includes the Battle of Breitenfeld and Siege of Vienna. 1700 - 1900: Includes the Battle Waterloo and Gettysburg. 1900 - Present: Includes Dunkirk and Operation Desert Storm.

The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War Pdf/ePub eBook Author: DK
Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 1465466010
FileSize: 1393kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1393

eBook Download

The Vietnam War by DK Summary

The Vietnam War remains one of the most heroic and heartbreaking events in history. This definitive guide charts the unforgettable story of the world's first televised war. Created in association with the Smithsonian Institution, this authoritative guide chronicles America's fight against Communism in southeast Asia during the 1960s and 1970s, and comprehensively explores the people, politics, events, and lasting effects of the Vietnam War. Hundreds of insightful images and a compelling narrative combine to chronicle this catastrophic conflict.?? From 1955, the communist government of North Vietnam waged war against South Vietnam and its main ally, the USA. Over the course of two decades of hostility and warfare, the number of casualties reached an incomprehensible three million people. Detailed descriptions of every episode, including Operation Passage to Freedom and the evacuation of the American embassy in Saigon, tell the stories in iconic photographs and eyewitness accounts. Discover the real people behind the conflict, with gripping biographies of key figures, including Henry Kissinger, General Thieu, President Nixon, and Pol Pot. This incredible visual record is supported by locator maps, at-a-glance timelines, archive photography, and key quotations to ensure an all-encompassing experience. The Vietnam War is an essential historic reference to help humanity learn the lessons of suffering and sacrifice from one of the bloodiest conflicts of the 20th century.

A History of War in 100 Battles

A History of War in 100 Battles Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Overy
Editor: HarperCollins UK
ISBN: 0007452527
FileSize: 1204kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1204

eBook Download

A History of War in 100 Battles by Richard Overy Summary

A history of warfare distilled into 100 momentous battles – epic moments that have shaped our world.

Victory at Stalingrad

Victory at Stalingrad Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Geoffrey Roberts
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317868900
FileSize: 742kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 742

eBook Download

Victory at Stalingrad by Geoffrey Roberts Summary

Victory at Stalingrad tells the gripping strategic and military story of that battle. The hard-won Soviet victory prevented Hitler from waging the Second World War for another ten years and set the Germans on the road to defeat. The Soviet victory also prevented the Nazis from completing the Final Solution, the wholesale destruction of European Jewry, which began with Hitler’s "War of Annihilation" against the Soviets on the Eastern Front. Geoffrey Roberts places the conflict in the context of the clash between two mighty powers:their world views and their leaders. He presents a great human drama, highlighting the contribution made by political and military leaders on both sides. He shows that the real story of the battle was the Soviets’ failure to achieve their greatest ambition: to deliver an immediate, war-winning knockout blow to the Germans. This provocative reassessment presents new evidence and challenges the myths and legends that surround both the battle and the key personalities who led and planned it.

50 Battles That Changed the World

50 Battles That Changed the World Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William Weir
Editor: Permuted Press+ORM
ISBN: 1682617653
FileSize: 1886kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1886

eBook Download

50 Battles That Changed the World by William Weir Summary

An informative look at the military conflicts that most altered the course of history and civilization, from ancient times to the modern world. Rather than celebrating warfare, 50 Battles That Changed the World looks at the clashes the author believes have had the most profound impact on world history. Ranked in order of their relevance to the modern world, these struggles range from the ancient past to the present day and span the globe many times over. Some of the battles in this book are familiar to us all—Bunker Hill, which prevented the American Revolution from being stillborn, and Marathon, which kept the world’s first democracy alive. Others may be less familiar—the naval battle at Diu (on the Indian Coast), which led to the ascendancy of Western Civilization and the discovery of America, and Yarmuk, which made possible the spread of Islam from Morocco to the Philippines. With remarkable accounts of both famous and lesser-known clashes, 50 Battles That Changed the World provides impressive insight into the battles that shaped civilization as we know it.

Iron Dawn

Iron Dawn Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Snow
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1476794200
FileSize: 1081kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1081

eBook Download

Iron Dawn by Richard Snow Summary

“An utterly absorbing account of one of history’s most momentous battles” (Forbes) that not only changed the Civil War but the future of all sea power—from acclaimed popular historian Richard Snow, who “writes with verve and a keen eye” (The New York Times Book Review). No single sea battle has had more far-reaching consequences than the one fought in Hampton Roads, Virginia, in 1862. The Confederacy, with no fleet of its own, took a radical step to combat the Union blockade, building an iron fort containing ten heavy guns on the hull of a captured Union frigate named the Merrimack. The North got word of the project, and, in panicky desperation, commissioned an eccentric inventor named John Ericsson to build the Monitor, an entirely revolutionary iron warship. Rushed through to completion in just one hundred days, it mounted only two guns, but they were housed in a shot-proof revolving turret. The ship hurried south from Brooklyn, only to arrive to find the Merrimack had already sunk half the Union fleet—and would be back to finish the job. When she returned, the Monitor was there. She fought the Merrimack to a standstill, and, many believe, saved the Union cause. As soon as word of the fight spread, Great Britain—the foremost sea power of the day—ceased work on all wooden ships. A thousand-year-old tradition ended and the naval future opened. Richly illustrated with photos, maps, and engravings, Iron Dawn “renders all previous accounts of the encounter between the Monitor and the Merrimack as obsolete as wooden war ships” (The Dallas Morning News). Richard Snow brings to vivid life the tensions of the time in this “lively tale of science, war, and clashing personalities” (The Wall Street Journal).

The Allure of Battle

The Allure of Battle Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Cathal Nolan
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199874654
FileSize: 1901kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1901

eBook Download

The Allure of Battle by Cathal Nolan Summary

History has tended to measure war's winners and losers in terms of its major engagements, battles in which the result was so clear-cut that they could be considered "decisive." Cannae, Konigsberg, Austerlitz, Midway, Agincourt-all resonate in the literature of war and in our imaginations as tide-turning. But these legendary battles may or may not have determined the final outcome of the wars in which they were fought. Nor has the "genius" of the so-called Great Captains - from Alexander the Great to Frederick the Great and Napoleon - play a major role. Wars are decided in other ways. Cathal J. Nolan's The Allure of Battle systematically and engrossingly examines the great battles, tracing what he calls "short-war thinking," the hope that victory might be swift and wars brief. As he proves persuasively, however, such has almost never been the case. Even the major engagements have mainly contributed to victory or defeat by accelerating the erosion of the other side's defences. Massive conflicts, the so-called "people's wars," beginning with Napoleon and continuing until 1945, have consisted of and been determined by prolonged stalemate and attrition, industrial wars in which the determining factor has been not military but matériel. Nolan's masterful book places battles squarely and mercilessly within the context of the wider conflict in which they took place. In the process it help corrects a distorted view of battle's role in war, replacing popular images of the "battles of annihilation" with somber appreciation of the commitments and human sacrifices made throughout centuries of war particularly among the Great Powers. Accessible, provocative, exhaustive, and illuminating, The Allure of Battle will spark fresh debate about the history and conduct of warfare.

The Battle of Vouillé, 507 CE

The Battle of Vouillé, 507 CE Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ralph W. Mathisen,Danuta Shanzer
Editor: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 1614510997
FileSize: 1985kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1985

eBook Download

The Battle of Vouillé, 507 CE by Ralph W. Mathisen,Danuta Shanzer Summary

This volume highlights the heretofore largely neglected Battle of Vouillé in 507 CE, when the Frankish King Clovis defeated Alaric II, the King of the Visigoths. Clovis’ victory proved a crucial step in the expulsion of the Visigoths from Francia into Spain, thereby leaving Gaul largely to the Franks. It was arguably in the wake of Vouillé that Gaul became Francia, and that “France began.” The editors have united an international team of experts on Late Antiquity and the Merovingian Kingdoms to reexamine the battle from multiple as well as interdisciplinary perspectives. The contributions address questions of military strategy, geographical location, archaeological footprint, political background, religious propaganda, consequences (both in Francia and in Italy), and significance. There is a strong focus on the close reading of primary source-material, both textual and material, secular and theological.

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Edward Shepherd Creasy
Editor: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486142205
FileSize: 1022kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1022

eBook Download

The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World by Edward Shepherd Creasy Summary

Ranging from Marathon to Waterloo, this 1851 classic of military history chronicles the battles that changed the course of history, with gripping, authoritative analyses of key events.

A Topical Guide to the Koran & Sharia Law

A Topical Guide to the Koran & Sharia Law Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Maddock
Editor: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1543455263
FileSize: 363kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 363

eBook Download

A Topical Guide to the Koran & Sharia Law by Robert Maddock Summary

This book is based on the 1734 translation of the Koran by George Sale. This translation is in King James English, making comparisons between it and the King James Bible easily. This is a topical guide that will take a word or short phrase and find it in every verse of the Koran where it appears. These verses are placed together so that the reader can readily determine the context and, therefore, the meaning of the word or phrase. In some instances such as the word “jihad,” which does not appear in the Sale translation, it is traced in the University of Michigan’s online translation of the Koran. There it appears thirteen times, but in only two does it mean an internal struggle. In the other eleven, it means warfare. When analyzing words and phrases in the Koran, it is important to know when they were received and written. It is also important to know that the Koran includes material that seems to come from other sources. This has been outlined in volume 2 of the 1,300 Years’ War. As noted in volume 1 of the 1,300 Years’ War, Muhammad (PBUH) has been thought by many for over 150 years to have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy associated with visual and auditory hallucinations. These seizures last less than three minutes. It is, therefore, important to know which suras might have come from a single episode. A table shows this in volume 1 (table 8). Many scholars divide the Koran into four major periods: early Mecca (AD 610–615), mid-Mecca (AD 616), late Mecca (AD 617–621) and Medina (AD 622–632). The analysis of the verses in these periods found that militancy against non-Muslims progresses: 7.7 percent of the verses from early Mecca are militant. This rises to 10.6 percent in the mid-Mecca period, and 18.3 percent in the late Mecca period. It tops out at 29.3 percent in the Medina period. The colored version of the topical guide shows these periods in black, blue, green, and red. In the black and white edition, it shows these four periods of the Koran in plain italics, boldface italics, regular plain type, and boldface regular type. The reason this division is important is the doctrine of abrogation (2:106) given early in the Medina period. This states that verses given later may nullify verses given earlier. Thus, many peaceful verses given in the early parts of the Koran may be nullified by the “verse of the sword” (9:5) given later toward the end of the prophet’s life: “Slay the idolaters wherever you find them.” So far as I have been able to determine, there has been no stylistic analysis of the Koran. A person studying the Koran or the history of Islam will find this work most valuable.

Star Wars Battles That Changed the Galaxy

Star Wars Battles That Changed the Galaxy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Cole Horton,Jason Fry,Amy Ratcliffe,Chris Kempshall
Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 074405740X
FileSize: 1070kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1070

eBook Download

Star Wars Battles That Changed the Galaxy by Cole Horton,Jason Fry,Amy Ratcliffe,Chris Kempshall Summary

Explore the "Wars" in Star Wars as never before! Enter a galaxy ravaged by conflict and discover the complete story of the epic struggles that define the Star Wars movies. This ambitious book presents major galactic conflicts from an in-world "historical" perspective: each battle is depicted with captivating imagery, explored with newly commissioned maps, and explained through a detailed analysis of tactics, famous commanders, legendary warriors, key moments, and its impact on wider galactic history. This is the perfect book for any Star Wars fan, budding military historian, or would-be rebel hero! © AND TM 2021 LUCASFILM LTD.

Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts

Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Spencer C. Tucker
Editor: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610697863
FileSize: 1140kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1140

eBook Download

Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts by Spencer C. Tucker Summary

A thorough study of significant wars throughout history and their influence on world affairs—from the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmore III's Campaigns during 479–459 BCE through the Iraq War of 2003–2011. • Features Illustrations, maps, and photographs to visually engage readers • Discusses the significance of major conflicts and their broad historical consequences • Offers the most recent interpretations as to the causes and effects of each war covered • Provides a list of books for additional reading to expand learning opportunities • Reveals the meaning of the term "tech-tac disjoint" and explains its relevance to to modern use of technology-enabled weaponry

50 Weapons That Changed Warfare

50 Weapons That Changed Warfare Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William Weir
Editor: Permuted Press
ISBN: 1682618897
FileSize: 1357kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1357

eBook Download

50 Weapons That Changed Warfare by William Weir Summary

William Weir, author of 50 Battles That Changed the World, takes another look at the history of warfare by focusing on the hardware that served those famous battles. In this text, you’ll uncover: · Crew-served weapons—from battering rams to Big Bertha. · Weapons carriers, such as tanks and bombers. · Unmanned weapons—punji stakes, Bouncing Betty landmines, trap guns, and more. 50 Weapons That Changed Warfare analyzes the most memorable tools known to man, many of which have had enormous effects on the conduct of war. This book describes the impact of these weapons and how they transformed warfare—from the bloody carnage produced by hand weapons throughout history, to the never used (but universally feared) fusion bomb. Each weapon is not only described, but also illustrated to give a clearer picture of its usage and effects. These weapons have changed not only how we fight…but also why and when.

TOEFL Strategies

TOEFL Strategies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bruce Stirling
Editor: Nova Press
ISBN: 1944595139
FileSize: 1348kb
File Format: Pdf
Read: 1348

eBook Download

TOEFL Strategies by Bruce Stirling Summary

TOEFL students all ask: How can I get a high TOEFL iBT score? Answer: Learn argument scoring strategies. Why? Because the TOEFL iBT recycles opinion-based and fact-based arguments for testing purposes from start to finish. In other words, the TOEFL iBT is all arguments. That's right, all arguments. If you want a high score, you need essential argument scoring strategies. That is what TOEFL STRATEGIES A COMPLETE GUIDE gives you, and more! Test-Proven Strategies: Learn essential TOEFL iBT scoring strategies developed in American university classrooms and proven successful on the TOEFL iBT. Rhetorical Analysis: Learn how to maximize scoring by rhetorically analyzing all reading, listening, speaking and writing tasks. Argument Recycling: Learn how the TOEFL iBT recycles opinion-based and fact-based arguments for testing purposes in all four test sections. Argument Mapping: Learn how to apply the strategy called argument mapping to all TOEFL tasks for maximum scoring.