Harm One

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Of One-eyed and Toothless Miscreants

Of One-eyed and Toothless Miscreants Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190070617
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Of One-eyed and Toothless Miscreants by , Summary

Can punishments ever meaningfully be proportioned in severity to the seriousness of the crimes for which they are imposed? A great deal of attention has been paid to the general justification of punishment, but the thorny practical questions have received significantly less. Serious analysis has seldom delved into what makes crimes more or less serious, what makes punishments more or less severe, and how links are to be made between them. In Of One-eyed and Toothless Miscreants, Michael Tonry has gathered together a distinguished cast of contributors to offer among the first sustained efforts to specify with precision how proportionality can be understood in relation to the implementation of punishment. Each chapter examines scholarly and lay thinking about punishment of people convicted of crimes with particular emphasis on "making the punishment fit the crime." The contributors challenge the most prevalent current theories and emphasize the need for a shift away from the politicized emotionalism of recent decades. They argue that theories that coincided with mass incarceration and rampant injustice to countless individuals are evolving in ways that better countenance moving toward more humane and thoughtful approaches. Written by many of the leading thinkers on punishment, this volume dissects previously undeveloped issues related to considerations of deserved punishment and provides new ways to understand both the severities of punishment and the seriousness of crime.

Harm to Others

Harm to Others Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Joel Feinberg
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199878579
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Harm to Others by Joel Feinberg Summary

This first volume in the four-volume series The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law focuses on the "harm principle," the commonsense view that prevention of harm to persons other than the perpetrator is a legitimate purpose of criminal legislation. Feinberg presents a detailed analysis of the concept and definition of harm and applies it to a host of practical and theoretical issues, showing how the harm principle must be interpreted if it is to be a plausible guide to the lawmaker.

Intricate Ethics : Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm

Intricate Ethics : Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm Pdf/ePub eBook Author: F. M. Kamm Professor of Philosophy Harvard University
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195345908
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Intricate Ethics : Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm by F. M. Kamm Professor of Philosophy Harvard University Summary

In Intricate Ethics, Kamm questions the moral importance of some non-consequentialist distinctions and then introduces and argues for the moral importance of other distinctions. The first section discusses nonconsequentialist ethical theory and the trolley problem; the second deals with the notions of moral status and rights; the third takes up the issues of responsibility and complicity and the possible moral significance of distance; and the fourth section analyzes the views of others in the non-consequentialist and consequentialist camps.

The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato

The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gerald A. Press
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474250920
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The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato by Gerald A. Press Summary

Plato, mathematician, philosopher and founder of the Academy in Athens, is, together with his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, universally considered to have laid the foundations of Western philosophy. The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato provides a comprehensive and accessible study guide to Plato's thought. Written by a team of leading experts in the field of ancient philosophy, this companion covers five major areas; - Plato's life and his historical, philosophical and literary context - synopses of all the dialogues attributed to Plato - the most important features of the dialogues - the key themes and topics apparent in the dialogues - Plato's enduring influence and the various interpretative approaches applied to his thought throughout the history of philosophy Covering every aspect of Plato's thought in over 140 entries, The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato is an engaging introduction to Plato and an essential resource for anyone working in the field of ancient philosophy.

Making Sense of Self-harm

Making Sense of Self-harm Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Peter Steggals
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137470593
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Making Sense of Self-harm by Peter Steggals Summary

Making Sense of Self-Harm provides an alternative approach to understanding nonsuicidal self-injury; using Cultural Sociology to analyse it more as a practice than an illness and exploring it as a powerful cultural idiom of personal distress and social estrangement that is peculiarly resonant with the symbolic life of late-modern society.

China’s Environmental Crisis

China’s Environmental Crisis Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J. Kassiola
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 0230114369
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China’s Environmental Crisis by J. Kassiola Summary

This path-breaking collection covers the significance of China's extreme environmental challenges for both Chinese society and the world, how these challenges are impacting domestic Chinese society and its political institutions, and how these institutions are responding in their efforts to address the environmental problems.

Group Responsibility

Group Responsibility Pdf/ePub eBook Author: C. Striblen
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137358661
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Group Responsibility by C. Striblen Summary

Drawing on work in social psychology, narrative ethics, and feminist philosophy, the author presents a new account which answers the standard objections while also giving practical guidance to individuals who take their group-related responsibilities seriously.

Kantianism, Liberalism, and Feminism

Kantianism, Liberalism, and Feminism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: C. Hay
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137003901
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Kantianism, Liberalism, and Feminism by C. Hay Summary

In this book Hay argues that the moral and political frameworks of Kantianism and liberalism are indispensable for addressing the concerns of contemporary feminism. After defending the use of these frameworks for feminist purposes, Hay uses them to argue that people who are oppressed have an obligation to themselves to resist their own oppression.

The Pilgrim's Progress

The Pilgrim's Progress Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Bunyan
Editor: Strelbytskyy Multimedia Publishing
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The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan Summary

The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan is a bright example of the new Christian allegory of XVII century. The author, son of an ordinary sheet metal worker (rather despised job that had to done by the people with the lowest social status in England), John Bunyan used to be a sinner and ribald before marriage. Only after marrying an orphan Marry, whose only heritage was two books: Plain Man’s Pathway to Heaven by Arthur Dent and Practice of Piety by Lewis Bayly, he started his uneasy way to moral recovery. Considerably soon, Bunyan became a preacher. He was numerously chased by the authorities as well as English Church for his Christian views, baptistic in particular. He began writing The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come in prison. The book is questionable and contradictive but written very sincerely and persuasively. This work is probably one of the most famous allegories ever written. The book is translated into many languages. Protestants translated often the book into different languages as the second one after the Bible.

Creating New States

Creating New States Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Aleksandar Pavkovic,Peter Radan
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317158466
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Creating New States by Aleksandar Pavkovic,Peter Radan Summary

Secession is the creation of a new independent state out of an existing state. This key volume examines the political, social and legal processes of the practice of secession. Following an analysis of secessionist movements and their role in attempts at secession, eight case studies are explored to illustrate peaceful, violent, sequential and recursive secessions. This is followed by a look at the theoretical approaches and a discussion that focuses on the economic causes. Normative theories of secession are discussed as well as the status of secession in legal theory and practice. The book systematizes our present knowledge of secessions in an accessible way to readers not familiar with the phenomenon and its consequences. It is ideal as a supplementary text to courses on contemporary political and social movements, applied ethics and political philosophy, international relations and international law, state sovereignty and state formation.

A Moral Defense of Recreational Drug Use

A Moral Defense of Recreational Drug Use Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Rob Lovering
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137528680
FileSize: 358kb
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A Moral Defense of Recreational Drug Use by Rob Lovering Summary

Why does American law allow the recreational use of some drugs, such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine, but not others, such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin? The answer lies not simply in the harm the use of these drugs might cause, but in the perceived morality—or lack thereof—of their recreational use. Despite strong rhetoric from moral critics of recreational drug use, however, it is surprisingly difficult to discern the reasons they have for deeming the recreational use of (some) drugs morally wrong. In this book, Rob Lovering lays out and dissects various arguments for the immorality of using marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and other drugs recreationally. He contends that, by and large, these arguments do not succeed. Lovering’s book represents one of the first works to systematically present, analyze, and critique arguments for the moral wrongness of recreational drug use. Given this, as well as the popularity of the morality-based defense of the United States’ drug laws, this book is an important and timely contribution to the debate on the recreational use of drugs.

Motivation Ethics

Motivation Ethics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mathew Coakley
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 135000457X
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Motivation Ethics by Mathew Coakley Summary

This is a book about a particular moral theory – motivation ethics – and why we should accept it. But it is also a book about moral theorizing, about how we might compare different structures of moral theory. In principle we might morally evaluate a range of objects: we might, for example, evaluate what people do – is some action right, wrong, permitted, forbidden, a duty or beyond what is required? Or we might evaluate agents: what is it to be morally heroic, or morally depraved, or highly moral? And, we could evaluate institutions: which ones are just, or morally better, or legitimate? Most theories focus on one (or two) of these and offer arguments against rivals. What this book does is to step back and ask a different question: of the theories that evaluate one object, are they compatible with an acceptable account of the evaluation of the other objects? So, for instance, if a moral theory tells us which actions are right and wrong, well can it then be compatible with a theory of what it is to be a morally good or bad or heroic or depraved agent (or deny the need for this)? It seems that this would be an easy task, but the book sets out how this is very difficult for some of our most prominent theories, why this is so, and why a theory based on motivations might be the right answer.

Resonances of Slavery in Race/Gender Relations

Resonances of Slavery in Race/Gender Relations Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J. Flax
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 0230117465
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Resonances of Slavery in Race/Gender Relations by J. Flax Summary

Jane Flax argues that a reciprocal relationship exists between unconscious processes and race/gender domination and that unless we attend to these unconscious processes, no adequate remedy for the malignant consequences of our current race/gender practices and relations can be devised. Flax supports her arguments using a variety of sources.

This Is Political Philosophy

This Is Political Philosophy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alex Tuckness,Clark Wolf
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118766040
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This Is Political Philosophy by Alex Tuckness,Clark Wolf Summary

This is Political Philosophy is an accessible and well-balanced introduction to the main issues in political philosophy written by an author team from the fields of both philosophy and politics. This text connects issues at the core of political philosophy with current, live debates in policy, politics, and law and addresses different ideals of political organization, such as democracy, liberty, equality, justice, and happiness. Written with great clarity, This is Political Philosophy is accessible and engaging to those who have little or no prior knowledge of political philosophy and is supported with supplemental pedagogical and instructor material on the This Is Philosophy series site.

Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology

Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Paul H. Blaney Ph.D.,Robert F. Krueger Ph.D.,Theodore Millon Ph.D.
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199811849
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Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology by Paul H. Blaney Ph.D.,Robert F. Krueger Ph.D.,Theodore Millon Ph.D. Summary

While most abnormal psychology texts seem to aim solely for breadth, the acclaimed Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology aims for depth, with a focus on adult disorders and special attention given to the personality disorders. Now in its third edition, it has established itself as an unparalleled guide for professionals and graduate students alike. Esteemed editors Paul H. Blaney, Robert F. Krueger, and the late Theodore Millon selected the most eminent researchers in abnormal psychology to cover all the major mental disorders, allowing them to discuss notable issues in the various pathologies which are their expertise. This third edition of the Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology is fully updated according to the DSM-5 and also reflects alternative, emerging perspectives in the field (e.g., the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria Initiative; RDoC). The Textbook exposes readers to exceptional scholarship, a history of psychopathology, the logic of the best approaches to current disorders, and an expert outlook on what researchers and mental health professionals will be facing in the years to come. With extensive coverage of personality disorders and issues related to classification and differential diagnosis, this volume will be exceptionally useful for all mental health workers, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, and as a textbook focused on understanding psychopathology in depth, as well as a valuable guide for graduate psychology students and psychiatric residents.

The Atrocity Paradigm

The Atrocity Paradigm Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Claudia Card
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198033141
FileSize: 1309kb
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The Atrocity Paradigm by Claudia Card Summary

What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible or that makes a death indecent. The other component is culpable wrongdoing. Atrocities, such as genocides, slavery, war rape, torture, and severe child abuse, are Card's paradigms because in them these key elements are writ large. Atrocities deserve more attention than secular philosophers have so far paid them. They are distinguished from ordinary wrongs not by the psychological states of evildoers but by the seriousness of the harm that is done. Evildoers need not be sadistic:they may simply be negligent or unscrupulous in pursuing their goals. Card's theory represents a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic alternatives (including Kant's theory of radical evil). Utilitarians tend to reduce evils to their harms; Stoics tend to reduce evils to the wickedness of perpetrators: Card accepts neither reduction. She also responds to Nietzsche's challenges about the worth of the concept of evil, and she uses her theory to argue that evils are more important than merely unjust inequalities. She applies the theory in explorations of war rape and violence against intimates. She also takes up what Primo Levi called "the gray zone", where victims become complicit in perpetrating on others evils that threaten to engulf themselves. While most past accounts of evil have focused on perpetrators, Card begins instead from the position of the victims, but then considers more generally how to respond to -- and live with -- evils, as victims, as perpetrators, and as those who have become both.

A Moderate Compromise

A Moderate Compromise Pdf/ePub eBook Author: S. Suranovic
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 0230114601
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A Moderate Compromise by S. Suranovic Summary

Looking at all sides of the globalization debate, this book analyzes how international economic policy is made and how it has become so controversial. The author offers a solution to the debate between free trade/unregulated markets and the push for greater government involvement that is consistent with both economic efficiency and social justice

The Concept of Hell

The Concept of Hell Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Arp,Benjamin McCraw
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137455713
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The Concept of Hell by Robert Arp,Benjamin McCraw Summary

What is the nature of Hell? What role(s) may Hell play in religious, political, or ethical thought? Can Hell be justified? This edited volume addresses these questions and others; drawing philosophers from many approaches and traditions to analyze and examine Hell.

Medicine and the Ethics of Care

Medicine and the Ethics of Care Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Diana Fritz Cates,Paul Lauritzen
Editor: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1589013697
FileSize: 657kb
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Medicine and the Ethics of Care by Diana Fritz Cates,Paul Lauritzen Summary

In these essays, a diverse group of ethicists draw insights from both religious and feminist scholarship in order to propose creative new approaches to the ethics of medical care. While traditional ethics emphasizes rules, justice, and fairness, the contributors to this volume embrace an "ethics of care," which regards emotional engagement in the lives of others as basic to discerning what we ought to do on their behalf. The essays reflect on the three related themes: community, narrative, and emotion. They argue for the need to understand patients and caregivers alike as moral agents who are embedded in multiple communities, who seek to attain or promote healing partly through the medium of storytelling, and who do so by cultivating good emotional habits. A thought-provoking contribution to a field that has long been dominated by an ethics of principle, Medicine and the Ethics of Care will appeal to scholars and students who want to move beyond the constraints of that traditional approach.

The Ends of Harm

The Ends of Harm Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Victor Tadros
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191029564
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The Ends of Harm by Victor Tadros Summary

Every modern democratic state imprisons thousands of offenders every year, depriving them of their liberty, causing them a great deal of psychological and sometimes physical harm. Relationships are destroyed, jobs are lost, the risk of the offender being harmed by other offenders is increased and all at great expense to the state. How can this brutal and costly enterprise be justified? Traditionally, philosophers answering this question have argued either that the punishment of wrongdoers is a good in itself (retributivism), or that it is a regrettable means to a valuable end, such as the deterrence of future wrongdoing, and thus justifiable on consequentialist grounds. This book offers a critical examination of those theories and advances a new argument for punishment's justification, calling it the 'duty view'. On this view, the permission to punish offenders is grounded in the duties that they incur in virtue of their wrongdoing. The most important duties that ground the justification of punishment are the duty to recognize that the offender has done wrong and the duty to protect others against wrongdoing. In the light of these duties the state has a permission to punish offenders to ensure that they recognize that what they have done is wrong, but also to protect others from crime. In contrast to other justifications of punishment grounded in deterrence, the duty view is developed in the light of a non-consequentialist moral theory: a theory which endorses constraints on the pursuit of the good. It is shown that it is normally wrong to harm a person as a means to pursue a greater good. However, there are exceptions to this principle in cases where the person harmed has an enforceable duty to pursue the good. The implications of this idea are explored both in the context of self-defence, and then in the context of punishment. Through the systematic exploration of the relationship between self-defence and punishment, the book makes significant progress in defending a plausible set of non-consequentialist moral principles that justify the punishment of wrongdoers, and marks a significant contribution to the philosophical literature on punishment.